Mike Caro poker word is Price

Note: Not at the old Poker1 site. A version of this entry was first published (2005) in Poker Player newspaper.

It’s easier to understand the nature of poker if you think about price.

Caro’s Law of Poker Economics states: “Poker is the art of trading chances. To win, buy chances at a low price and sell chances at a high price.” In fact, that simple truth defines the core of poker success.

Perhaps you’ve heard people talk about the secret to success in the stock market. They’ll say, “Buy low, sell high.” Sometimes they’re dead serious when they say this, and sometimes they’re just amusing themselves, because they realize there’s no real way to know for certain – at the moment of purchase or sale – whether a stock is low or high. It may seem low, but could go lower; and it may seem high, but could go higher. If either of those things happen, buying “low” didn’t work, because your purchase lost value; and selling “high” didn’t work, because you sold too soon and would have earned more by waiting. Still, the concept is profound in its simplicity.

Retail business is based on the notion that you need to buy merchandise at the lowest price you can and sell it at the most profitable price. Poker is the same way, but instead of buying and selling physical merchandise, you’re buying and selling chances.

Let’s examine what this means.

What does it mean to “buy low” in poker

I’m betting most people don’t think they’re buying anything when they play poker. But they are. When you sit down to play poker seriously, you’re not out to just win pots. You’re out to win pots only if the price is right and the risk is warranted. Again, it’s the same as in any other business where you buy and sell. You’re looking for the best price. If something is too expensive, you won’t buy it at all.

In poker, you’re looking for good deals. You’re out to buy opportunity. If you’re serious about winning, you sit in a game believing you have an expectation of earning a profit. And profit is all about price. Buying low means you called a bet with an advantage. You bought a chance, and you paid a cheap price.

Overpriced hands

Now here’s a really important concept, and I want you to think about it long and hard: Tight players usually overprice their chances, so you should seldom buy from them; loose players usually underprice their chances, so you should often buy from them. Got it?

Let me get sidetracked for a minute. We’re talking about “buying” here, which means calling when an opponent has bet. We’re not talking about the fact that you can raise a tight opponent more liberally, because they fold more often. In that sense, you can play some hands more often against a too-tight opponent than a too-loose one, but those hands tend to be specifically your bluffs. Conversely, you play more medium-strong hands against loose opponents, because they often call with even worse hands. Against them, the secret isn’t bluffing more, it’s betting semi-strong hands more.

Anyway, back to today’s discussion.

Like I said, tight players overprice their hands. When they wager, they have stronger hands, on average, than typical players would have in the same situation. Because of this, you need a stronger-than-usual hand to call. Remember, whenever you call, you’re buying an opportunity. The purchase is always speculative, unless you have a hand that can’t possibly be beat. So, in essence, you’re paying to take a chance. And against tight players, chances are sold at a premium, so you need to be selective about when you buy.

A million calls

Keep in mind that you want that chance to be profitable in the long-run. A chance is theoretically profitable whenever you would expect to make money if you could make the same call with the same hopes and the same doubts a million times. If the expected outcome for each one of those million calls averaged together is greater than nothing, you’re getting a good deal. If it’s considerably greater than nothing, you’re getting a bargain.

But, if you call tight opponents with the same hands with which you call loose opponents, you’ll lose money, except on your better hands. That means that your call is overall worth less than nothing. And since nothing is the break-even point, that means you’re losing money. You paid too much. You didn’t buy at a low-enough price. Your chance wasn’t worth the money.

So, you can see, in poker you are truly buying chances. And you need to get a good deal in order to win.

Selling chances high

The other half of this concept is selling. When you have an advantage over your opponents, you have something to sell, and you need to get your most profitable price. In limit games, there’s usually only one price (unless someone is short of money). It’s whatever the designated betting increment is. In a $200/$400 game, for instance, it will be $400 on later betting rounds. That’s the only price you can sell an opportunity for, so that greatly simplifies your decision. It’s now a matter of determining whether you’ll get a good deal if an opponent calls. If you will, you should often bet. If you won’t, you should often check.

What’s this “often” stuff? I hear you. You’re saying that if you’ll get a good deal if an opponent calls, you should always bet, not often bet. But that’s not true. Sometimes you might check because you can lay a trap and get an even better deal later – sort of like advertising a product at below cost to get people in your store in hopes they’ll buy something much pricier. And if you’ll get a bad deal if someone calls, that doesn’t necessarily mean you shouldn’t bet. Remember, they might not call. You’re offering them a good price to call the bet, so you’re offering to sell a chance at the pot unprofitably, but you’re hoping your opponent doesn’t realize this, will decline the purchase, and will make the mistake of folding. This happens – especially in limit games — when you’re weak or bluffing and also when you have a hand that will likely win if called, but will be more profitable if you take the pot right now. So, you see, you shouldn’t always bet, even if your opponent will get a bad deal by calling. And you shouldn’t always check, even if your opponent would get a good deal by calling.

Expensive, but not too expensive

But, in general, think of poker as a game where you want to buy chances cheaply and sell them expensively. In no-limit, this comes into play all the time. You don’t necessarily want to move all-in to protect a strong hand, you want to sell that hand at it’s most profitable price. Maybe all-in really is the most profitable price, but usually it isn’t. If you overprice the chances you’re selling in no-limit, you’ll get a call once in a while, but you probably won’t make as much profit as you would selling for less and getting lots of bad calls averaging more modest profit each.

It’s all buying and selling. Life. Business. Poker. You buy. You sell. And ultimately you succeed according to your skill at the game of price – which just happens to be today’s word. – MC

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Mike Caro

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Known as the “Mad Genius of Poker,” Mike Caro is generally regarded as today's foremost authority on poker strategy, psychology, and statistics. He is the founder of Mike Caro University of Poker, Gaming, and Life Strategy (MCU). See full bio → HERE.


9 thoughts on “Mike Caro poker word is Price”

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    1. Sometimes. But sometimes the disciplines required become almost automatic. The price concept is arguably more than just an analogy. Often you really are putting a price on a hand. The analogy part would be to the store with price tags, so I understand what you’re saying. It’s a great learning experience to think about betting in that context. But you don’t need to do it throughout your poker-playing career — unless you choose to.

  1. Do you not take action from people selling at a premium? If you hit, maybe they’ll pay you off with their overpair but I guess you’re saying that the trade-off isn’t worth it?

    1. Hi, Cherry —

      You’re right. Sometimes you can pay what seems to be a high price now with the expectation that you can recover from particular opponents on later betting rounds. You should factor that into the price you’re willing to pay. But that’s rare. If in doubt, fold when the price is mathematically high, relative to your chance of winning.

      Straight Flushes,
      Mike Caro

  2. How can you start selling chances before the flop if you don’t know where you stand until you see the flop? For example, you’re dealt a KJ of hearts; it’s not the best hand, but you might be ahead. Your opponents are in a calling mood, almost regardless of their holdings. Should you pick now to raise it up? Do you have something worth selling?

    1. Hi, Sam —

      Whenever you’re at a disadvantage (as you often are with the K-J suited, in your example), you usually don’t bet — although you might occasionally bluff or use an unusual betting tactic.

      So, in that case, you’re a buyer, not a seller. If your opponent allows you to continue for free, that’s great. If not, you have to decide whether the price you’re being offered is low enough. Otherwise, you fold.

      Straight Flushes,
      Mike Caro

      1. But if they’re likely to call with something like 56 suited, I would be selling. I understand that I’m probably more likely to get called by something better; so even if I had a hand like AK suited or pocket 10s, which are likely to be ahead before the flop, but usually not on the flop (more than half of the time the flop will disappoint), is it worth betting before the flop is spread on the felt? I’m just thinking about generally, when your first 2 cards might be slightly ahead. Why bet if that doesn’t indicate that you’re very likely to stay ahead once the flop is dealt?

        Thanks so much!

        1. Hi, Sam —

          The science of betting and raising before the flop is different in hold ’em and Omaha than in most other forms of poker.

          That’s because your hand is defined by the flop, rather than happening card by card, such as in seven stud. When this happens, your advantage isn’t as large. So, if you think you need a 3-to-2 edge to bet or raise, you won’t have it with many hands, even though they’re clearly a favorite.

          It’s incorrect to assume that you can raise with any hand that has an advantage. You can’t, because your opponent may have a very strong hand and reraise. Having a 3-to-2 edge is harder before the flop in hold ’em, so it’s often better to wait to see what develops on the flop.

          Straight Flushes,
          Mike Caro

  3. Mike , Every time I read your stories I like that’s its always a different view . Mike you have been blessed with the gift of writing, talking and illustrating a subject or topic that makes it interesting every time I read ,listen or watch . Which is to say that you are a great communicator , I believe they gave a similar title to president Ronald Regan which most of us baby boomers know that he was an actor before he became a politician . I personally believe its backwards you must be a great politician BEFORE you become an actor , I digress from the topic of “COMMUNICATION” when you “buy” or “sell” there is always communication that takes place . If a young man wants to buy his first car with ZERO car buying experience he will give obvious tells that a seller should pick up on , While a young divorcee with child may be selling a red sports car and could careless about telegraphing any tells , the divorce’s primary goal is to sell the soon to be single dads vehicle which to him is way more than transportation !! I guess it is obvious that I look forward to reading your thought like some look forward to the days “JUMBLE” or crossword either way it is always fresh and fresh equates to interesting which by consistent reading a better poker player and in turn a better person .
    Thank-you Sincerely Robert Berg

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